Tytuł: Identification of factors of aggression incidence among football spectators in Khuzestan
- Sedighe Heydarinejad, Sajad Gholami
- Studies in Physical Culture and Tourism
- Strona początkowa:
- Strona końcowa:
- Słowa kluczowe:
- aggression, spectators, football matches, Khuzestan.
Introduction: Aggression in sport has been defined as behaviors or actions performed with the
intent to harm an opponent, either physically or psychologically. Investigation of incidents of violence
and aggression in football matches has been an important research subject tackled by social scientists
and sport experts for the last two decades.
Aim of Study: The purpose of this research was to identify factors affecting the incidence of aggression
among fans of two Iranian league football teams from Khuzestan.
Material and Methods: The statistical material was a population of 6,500 spectators of two Iranian
super league teams. The random study sample consisted of 354 respondents. Data was gathered
using a two-part questionnaire that included respondents' personal data and 30 questions on
a 5-degree Likert scale, grouped in 4 factor ranges related to stadium safety and hygiene, refereeing,
media coverage and event management. The questionnaire reliability was estimated at Cronbach's
alpha of 0.87. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (Friedman ranking test) were used in the
Results: The study findings showed that factors such as kickoff delay, holding the games in hot
weather, repeated uses of red and yellow cards by the referee, referees' misconduct towards players,
referee's mistakes as well as confined entrance and exit pathways to the stadium do affect spectators'
Conclusions: The results show that sports managers through appropriate planning can minimize
potential football fans' aggression.